3.5.2 South Korea:
South Korea is a living example and a true story of a nation’s success, transforming it from a shattered people into one of the world’s largest nations.
After being exhausted by World War II, Korea entered civil wars that ended in its division into two Koreas, north and south, dominated by the Soviet Union (then) and the United States of America.
South Korea then seemed hopeless, until U.S. General Douglas MacArthur stated that Korea had no future and that it was difficult to stand up for itself even after hundreds of years.
This was not just the military man’s point of view, and then Vinjail Menon, the UN official in charge of the Peace Plan in Korea, expressed the difficulty of Korea’s return by saying, “How can a flower emerge from the wreckage?”
With an economy entirely dependent on agriculture and fishing, and an uneducated people ravaged by successive wars, Korean officials had an almost impossible task of boosting the economy of their broken state.
The average national income in the early 1960s was $82 per capita, Korean exports were less than $40 million, and the average age was less than 55 years.
With these figures, South Korea ranked low among the world’s nations and had no presence among the top 100 countries in the world.
South Korea achieved rapid economic growth during the second half of the 20th century, allowing it to achieve comprehensive development, and since the 1970s, it has been able to build its economy and industry, after decades of Japanese colonialism and years of devastating war with its northern neighbor. By the twenty-first century, Korea had become an economic, commercial, industrial and technological power, making it one of the most successful development stories of our modern times.
At the time of its founding, South Korea was one of the poorest countries in the world, with per capita income of less than $80 per year, suffering from economic destruction and political chaos, and after partition, the economic situation worsened further because of the suspension of economic and trade activity, which was linked to the two sides.
The Korean War of 1950-1953 caused widespread destruction across all sectors of the South and the war’s damage was estimated at about $69 billion, five times South Korea’s total at the time. The war destroyed a quarter of the country’s infrastructure, completely destroyed 40% of the housing units, destroyed 46.9% of the railway network, 500 kilometers of roads and archways, and destroyed 80% of power plants.
In addition, the war caused serious damage to the industrial structure, destroyed 68 percent of all factories, reduced industrial production by about 75 percent, and rice production fell by 65 percent.
By the end of the war, per capita income had fallen to about $50 a year, Korea had become a complete foreign aid, and the country had entered a period of economic and political turmoil.
South Korea seemed so desperate that US General Douglas McArthur said That Korea has no future and that it is difficult to stand for itself even after hundreds of years.
This was not just the point of view of the military man, and therefore, (Finsin Menon), the UN official in charge of the Korean peace plan, expressed the difficulty of returning Korea by saying, “How can flower come out of the wreckage? ”
- Will and plan in the face of challenges:
The Korean Economic Development Strategy Plan, which sees exports as an engine of industrial growth, has contributed significantly to the significant transformation of the Korean economy.
Many development programs and economic plans have been successfully implemented.
The government also moved to central planning policy, launched its five-year plan in 1962, and set up a new foundation called the Economic Planning Council to oversee the planning and implementation of the plans. The stated goal of the initial plan was to achieve economic growth of 7.1 percent during the years 1962-1966 by securing energy sources, improving infrastructure and improving the external balance of payments by increasing the volume of exports.
As a result, Korea’s gross national income increased from $2,300,000,000 in 1962 to $680,100,000,000 in 2004, and rose to $1,007,000,000,000 in 2010, equivalent to $1,459,000,000,000 on the purchasing value.
GDP increased from 4.1 per cent in 1962 to 9.3 per cent in 1963 and growth maintained a rate of over 8 per cent in the following years.
- Encouraging national capital:
The government has strengthened the role of giant corporations and harnessed them to serve development goals. These companies were weak and could not manufacture capital-intensive products without state assistance.
The state has stipulated that these companies achieve successful economic performance and invest in new economic and industrial fields within the framework of state plans, and cooperate closely with the government, as preconditions for receiving state protection and many privileges including financial assistance and financing. Preferential and government guarantee for external loans and protection from trade unions.
Thanks to these measures, giant companies were able to participate in the economic development plans and manufacturing policy of the state, initially targeting light industries such as cement, fertilizer and electricity.
This cooperation resulted in significant corporate expansion and significant growth in the volume of Korean exports of light industries, particularly textiles and garments.
- Industrial transformation:
Measures have been taken to shift from a focus on low-value-added industries (e.g. clothing and textiles, leather and footwear, food, tobacco and beverages) to capital-intensive and value-added heavy and chemical industries High, hence the focus on the high-tech industry, which is also characterized by the great benefits and profits.
One of the strongest decisions that has been taken and planned is the shift from import and consumption to export in order to provide hard currency, which in turn enables the state to import machinery and equipment that moves the industrial sector.
Export was the main engine of growth for the Korean economy and gross national product.
Exports contributed to 37% of GDP in 2004 and an annual rate of 25.4% for the time period 1965-2004.
Exports grew at a rate of 40% per annum, jumping from US$1.0 billion in 1970 to US$254.0 billion in 2004.
As exports increased, imports also increased to $224 billion in 2004.
- Interest in the small business economy:
The trend towards encouraging investment, individual enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises in the Korean economy has had a major impact on the progress of the economy and employment
In 2004, the contribution of these projects to employment and value added in the manufacturing sector was 76.9% and 52.8%, respectively.
The average contribution of small enterprises to total Korean exports for the years 1990-2004 was about 39.7% per year.
As an absolute value, exports of SMEs reached about 90.385 billion U.S. dollars in 2004.
One of the first priorities of the strategic plans of the countries is the issue of improving foreign relations and opening up to the world, and South Korea’s relations have begun to grow and expand, especially toward the United States, the world economy giant, which has provided great assistance to the Korean economy and the state.
The U.S. assistance program began after Korea was liberated from Japanese occupation. Some of the most important channels from which aid has flowed to South Korea include:
South Korea received economic aid from America from 1946 to 1975.
the most important of its forms:
– Training Korean economists in the United States who have been absorbed into universities and business sectors, and who were made the most of them under President “Park”, and who have had great credit in the success of Korean development.
– Training of Korean workers and engineers in American vocational training institutions and factories
Helping to establish institutions capable of performing scientific research and consulting functions in the field of industrial development and technology.
The most important of these institutions are the Korea Development Institute and the Korean Institute of Science and Technology.
Between 1952 and 1966, the United States provided about $100 million used to build schools and educational institutions in South Korea, thus contributing to the creation of education infrastructure, which later became a base for economic growth.
- Absorbing technological techniques and knowledge:
During its industrial development, Korea also benefited from patent licenses and technology transfer. From 1962 to 1965, the United States was the only source of such licenses, but as of 1966 Japan outperformed the United States in terms of the number of licenses held with facilities operating in South Korea.
Japanese-American investments have also contributed to enhancing the position of their industrial products in terms of absorbing modern technology and management methods and improving the quality of their industrial products, thus enhancing the competitive advantages of their industries in the world markets.
- Aid from surplus U.S. food commodities:
The United States has been providing food aid to friendly countries, including South Korea, and Korea is paying America in its domestic currency, not in US dollars.
Second: Taking advantage of U.S. military spending:
From 1953 to 1963, South Korea benefited from U.S. military spending, which took the following problem:
– U.S. troop expenditures in South Korea
– Sales of electricity, water, transportation and transportation services to Us forces stationed in the country.
South Korea has also benefited from its relationship with the United States with more preferential treatment, such as?
. Granting special trade preferences to South Korea under the U.S. Foreign Military Supply System during the Vietnam War.
. Increase disimport quotas granted by the United States, particularly in Korean textiles
. Turn a blind eye to South Korea in the event of its violation of US foreign trade rules, which are as follows:
. Circumventing the quota system for textiles, clothing and footwear exported from Korea.
Korea shipped quantities of these goods to Southeast Asian countries that could not meet their quotas or were not subject to quotas (such as Indonesia and Sri Lanka), and there they took new names and brands and exported to America as their industry.
Although America knew this, it condoned these violations.
Export through a third party. Korean semi-finished or semi-finished products were exported to Japan or the Philippines, where manufacturing processes are completed and exported from there to the United States.
22.214.171.124 Foreign investment:
Attention to investment laws and the creation of an attractive environment for attracting foreign capital have made the Korean economy a concern.
From 1969 to 1974, the U.S. contribution rate fell to 21 percent, while the contribution of other countries, particularly Japan, rose to more than 62 percent., benefiting Korea as follows:
Japan pushed a modern mix of industrial capitalism into a feudal agricultural society.
Japan has built a comprehensive infrastructure of roads, railways, ports, power plants, schools and academic and vocational education centers, which have facilitated the modernization of Korea’s economy and Japan’s control of the modernization process.
The Japanese have also set up various heavy industries, such as iron and steel, chemical industries, and hydropower plants, across the Korean Peninsula, mainly in the north.
The Japanese government has played an active role in the development of the Korean economy, helped mobilize resources for economic development and provided entrepreneurs with new projects. Colonial economic growth began through strong government efforts to expand economic infrastructure, to increase investment in human capital through health and education, and to raise productivity.
Japan has been a growth locomotive in South Korea and the rest of Southeast Asia, where cooperation has been the basis for development renaissance. Japanese investments have been greatly financed in economic and social development.
Japanese investments have localized the technology and accelerated its absorption in Korea and Southeast Asian countries, unlike Western investments aimed at maximizing profits only without equally benefiting host countries.
Japanese enterprises invested in South Korea exported about 55 percent of the exports of foreign enterprises by the end of 1974, while foreign subsidiaries exported only 34 percent, which fell to 30 percent in 1975, although they remained the highest in terms of other countries, followed by Japan.
Korea also received economic and technical assistance from Japan, the first of which was 800 million dollars in financial aid received by Korea immediately after the normalization of relations with Japan in 1965.
126.96.36.199 Take advantage of successful models:
Korea learned from the Japanese who colonized it for 35 years (1910-1945) and benefited from the Japanese experience in economic development, as it followed the Japanese approach to economic development.
In some respects, Korean development patterns following the early 1960s followed the Japanese approach in the first 50 years of industrialization, using the strong bureaucracy that formulated and implemented economic policies. Many of the developments that took place in Korea occurred in Japan before the Second World War, namely the application of a strong education system and the spread of literacy, as well as the establishment of a strong and authoritarian government, which combined the military and civil administration of strict state rule, and the adoption and application of Comprehensive economic programs by the state through its control over the huge national bureaucracy, close cooperation between the government and business leaders, and the development of industries by the large Japanese conglomerates zaibatsu.
188.8.131.52 Partnership with the private sector:
One of the factors that contributed to the industrial success in Korea was that government industrial plans were supported by the private sector and responsive to people of all walks of life.
The establishment of people’s participation councils by the Korean Development Institute helped to create institutional frameworks for popular participation, and it played a leading role in organizing public meetings with the participation of the presidents of industrial and labor federations, political parties, including the opposition and specialized scientists. Representatives of NGOs. These meetings were the reason for reaching political and economic choices acceptable to all. In addition to the institute’s core mission in preparing development research and development to support the government in designing and developing development and industrial policies.
184.108.40.206. Creating industrial conglomerates:
In the early 1960s, the Korean government formed a group of industrial enterprises called the “Chaebol” as a base for rapid industrialization and economic development.
The Chaebol is a group of companies owned and operated by a family that controls certain industries, monopolizing the industry.
The Government provides financing facilities at low-cost interest rates and requires conglomerates to follow national strategies for industrial development based on export-oriented industrialization. In doing so, the government has created a structural incentive for Chaebol conglomerates to rely on government banks to provide the necessary financing.
With its large and diversified industrial structures in the industrial fields, as well as easy access to credit advantages, Korean industry earns a large share of the global market and can well offset the loss of any subsidiary company through the profits of other subsidiaries.
The establishment of the Chaebol groups helped create a group of local businessmen and investors based on the industrial renaissance.
220.127.116.11. Interest in the human element:
Korea experienced political stability resulting in a government with an ambitious program of economic and social development. This national government has been keen to sharpen the workforce and raise its productive efficiency with education, training and technical rehabilitation.
The industrial development in Korea was based on a focus on supporting and developing education, improving its inputs, as well as concern for human resource development, and the rehabilitation and training of employment.
Today, Korea is characterized by low-cost, highly skilled, disciplined, committed, persistent, dedicated and well-functioning labor. (3)
A number of social indicators have evolved in South Korea: (4)
|Hope of life at birth (in years)
|Number of doctors per 1,000 inhabitants
|Infant mortality rate
|Schooling rate for ages 12-17
|Human Development Index
|Feeling well-being for a living
The best wealth in any country is its people, a phrase that former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad said in one of his books, explaining how a nation can go from one state to another.
A German island that was part of the colonies of Great Britain until it gained its independence in 1957, Great Britain, and as usual in the last century before carrying its stick and leaving, it left its colonial imprint in every country it intended to independence from, and that imprint of Malaysia was the multi-ethnicity of its people to become Multi-ethnicity is the obsession of Malaysian society.
The country’s economy was settled by the British and The Chinese in cooperation with foreigners, Malaysia exported tin, rubber and gold, which was the essence of the British crown, 46% of Britain’s income from its colonies on the island of Malay at the time.
Even when the British left, 70% of the country’s economy in 1971 was in the hands of Chinese and foreigners, which was the case in Malaysia when it gained independence in 1957.
The government’s vision at the time, led by Dr Mahathir Mohamad, was clear about modernizing the country and following the East Asian model of economic development, which means focusing on infrastructure, efficiency and changing the business culture.
He made great efforts to build infrastructure and roads, and when investors came ready and investment bodies were set up so that the investment that people develop would grow, there are many countries that are suffering from the issue of the economy because they have not given their countries the issue of infrastructure.
The infrastructure was equipped with the support of international financial institutions to borrow from abroad, but the infrastructure and subsequent investments subsequently covered those loans, but without that infrastructure the factories would not have operated or moved their products to export, the strategy was then export-oriented, at that time it began Call for investors to invest in Malaysia.
The government realized the difficulty of dealing with the World Bank and the World Monetary Fund due to preconditions, including the cessation of the policy of positive discrimination in favor of Malays, which was intended for internal reasons related to the nature of the state and which may not be understood by international institutions.
When work was under way to change the country’s economy from an agriculture-based economy to an industrial economy that angered the rural population, but they were persuaded that the focus on industrialization would create a large number of jobs. Indigenous people had greater opportunities to work, go to universities, work in government, private sector, and business.
The aim was not to rob others of the right to growth, but to allow the right of development to others, while at the same time giving jobs to the indigenous people to grow as well, under three conditions:
Second: to give assistance to those who deserve it, not to a millionaire or a billionaire just because he is of the same race.
Third: to emphasize that aid will not cause a market imbalance.
Factors highlighted in the Strategic Plan for Economic Transformation:
After a country that depended on agriculture, rubber and other primitive products, planning for the economic transformation and renaissance of the country began to focus on certain factors and areas so that it was its development and preparation that would create the desired change, which would not be temporary but sustainable, these factors were as follows:
Whenever you look or ask how Malaysia has made all this rapid progress, you always find a definitive answer: education.
Huge investments in education, scholarships, schools and teacher competence development, so that education itself later became an investment sector, making it one of the most important investment hubs in education in Southeast Asia.
There are 21 public universities as well as the branches of the world’s most renowned universities, who come to invest in the education sector in Malaysia and are confident in the strength of its economy, as well as Malaysians of Chinese and Indian origin who encourage investors and students from India and China to come here and these are countries with a huge population.
The National Education Project started by listening to teachers, parents’ associations and students, hiring international experts and holding meetings and forums to get everyone’s opinions on the quality of education they want so that 20% of the government budget is allocated to education, and they are committed to using new technology and provide an appropriate environment.
In such a climate, manufacturing has become the most important pillar of the economy, and these industries of course need to import the necessary raw materials, here the government realized the strong need to build a seaport.
The construction of the seaport has already served as a gateway to the world and represents the artery by which technology and equipment enter Malaysia and later expanded into a container hub and an outlet for the export of Malaysian products to international markets.
- Business environment and investment promotion:
In 2015, Malaysia’s economy was one of the most competitive in the world, ranking 14th in the world and fifth in countries with a population of more than 20 million, ahead of countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, South Korea and Japan.
According to a World Bank report issued in June 2013, Malaysia was the sixth in the world on the Ease of Doing Business index, and Malaysia’s strengths include access to credit (first), investor protection (fourth place) and cross-border trade (fifth place). Weaknesses include handling construction permits (rank edited 43). The study evaluates 189 countries from all aspects of doing business. In a survey of investor protection rating, Malaysia recorded the top 10 points in disclosure, nine for managers’ liability and seven for shareholder claims. Malaysia is next to Singapore, Hong Kung and New Zealand in the investor protection category.
In the World Bank’s Easy to do Business Report, 2016, Malaysia was ranked 18th in the world, second in Southeast Asia – after Singapore, but led regional economic powers such as Thailand (ranked 49th in the world) and Indonesia (109th in the world). Malaysia also provides tax incentives to technology-based companies through MSC.
In 2015, Malaysia was the sixth most attractive country for foreign investors, according to the Core Profitability Index (BPI) published by Foreign Policies.
The government is moving towards a more business-friendly environment by establishing a special business facilitation task force called PEMUDAH, which means “simplification”, in Malay. His main themes include easing restrictions and conditions of employment for arrivals, shortening the time for road transport and increasing the reduction of sugar storage (a controlled element in Malaysia) for companies.
PEMUDAH has largely succeeded in facilitating a more business-friendly environment, as evidenced by Malaysia’s 2013 ranking in the Ease of Doing Business Index.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the Malaysian government led an industrial revolution in Malaysia, coinciding with the decline in the number of fishermen and farmers who had undertaken their fathers’ low-paying careers, and these young people became the gears of the modern economy, migrating to cities at unprecedented rates, As a result, the number of citizens below the poverty line fell from 52% in 1970 to only 5% in 2002.
Mahathir Mohamad’s government encouraged and paid special attention to high-tech industries, manufacturing cement, iron and steel, and even manufacturing the Malaysian National Vehicle (Breton), and then expanding the textile and electronics industries, which now contribute two-thirds of the added value of the sector. Industrial and absorbs 40% of employment.
Japan was Malaysia’s largest ally in its development and progress project, played an important role in the Malaysian Industrial Revolution alongside the four Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), and Japan provided Malaysia with capital and technology.
During Mahathir’s rule, more than 15,000 industrial projects with a total capital of $220 billion were created, creating 2 million jobs for the Malaysian people, and foreign projects accounted for about 54 percent of these projects, while local projects accounted for 46 percent.
In the 1970s, Malaysia experienced its fastest economic expansion, with a growth rate of 7.9% per annum, but during the 1980s growth accelerated in an unprecedented manner, and the economy continued to expand further until the Asian financial crisis. (5)
- Economic transformation planning:
It took three years for the trend towards spreading IT education to be transformed and it has already been done, and Dr Mahathir said:
We are moving from an economy based on agriculture and manufacturing to a knowledge economy based on information technology. (6)
One of the signs of the importance of strategic planning in the Malaysian experience is the advice given by Dr Mahathir Mohamad himself in a lecture delivered at Sultan Qaboos University on Tuesday, May 9, 2017 in the Great Hall of the Cultural Center, the lecture was entitled “Strategic Planning” From the perspective of the Malaysian experience.” We summarize the highlights:
First, to emphasize the importance of strategic planning, planning is necessary for countries, as is necessary for institutions, and each country must have its own vision. The lack of planning and vision makes any country go without a specific goal to achieve it, thereby dispersing efforts and wasting various resources.
Second, planning must have a clear vision and specific objectives, and answer exactly what we want from the plan. When Vision 2020 was developed, it was aimed at sustaining economic growth, political stability and a decent life for the Malaysian people, and the target economic growth rate was set in that vision with indicators to measure growth annually and through the implementation of five-year plans to achieve all Goals at the end of the Malaysian vision.
Third: In order to the financial returns and economic feasibility of any plan, it is necessary to know the success of the state and determine the most important assets of the country. Malaysia’s most important assets have been identified, for example: Malaysia is an agricultural country and therefore agriculture has been a component of the success of the strategic plan and vision for the future, and rubber cultivation has been replaced by palm tree cultivation for the palm oil industry, thus becoming Malaysia. One of the most important countries in the cultivation of palm tree and the production of various industries of palm oil, and many lands that was not viable and became productive and economically viable.
Fourth: The human element is one of the most important inputs in the production process and is the most important asset of the country, but the human element may be one of the most important obstacles to the implementation of the plan if it is not rehabilitated and trained. Therefore, the focus has been on education and the qualification of Malaysian human resources to study both inside and outside Malaysia. When Malaysia decided to enter the automotive industry, it sent thousands of its students to America and Europe to study engineering in general and all the design and management of the production process, and Malaysia had a national staff specializing in the automotive industry.
Fifth: To emphasize the importance of scientific research and the role of universities in giving different solutions to the issues faced by local industries. For example, cooperation between universities and industry has played a major role in the renaissance of Malaysia’s petrochemical industry.
Sixth: Self-knowledge is one of the most important things for the success of the vision. We have begun to assess vulnerabilities and strengths as well as future opportunities and various threats. One of the things we have enumerated is the cost of living in Malaysia and therefore lower wages for the human staff, which undoubtedly led to Malaysia being a world-class competitor not only in product efficiency but also by lower cost of product or service.
In order for Malaysia to be distinguished by its low cost of living, the cost of the main food stuff has been identified and the interest rate on these substances has been determined by the Government and we have also addressed the monopoly on these substances.
Seventh: Work to stabilize the Malaysian national currency so that it is not expensive or cheap compared to other foreign currencies. The appreciation of the currency weakens the competitiveness of Malaysian products and services with other global products, and in contrast, a weak currency leads to high prices and inflation.
Eighth: The good selection of leaders for different positions is one of the most important reasons for the success of the plan, and these leaders must be scientifically qualified and in the right place in addition to being fair and honest.
Ninth: The relationship between government and the private sector must be strong, and they must be jointly planned for the success of the strategic plan. Government-only planning may be incomplete and must be complemented by the private sector, and we have learned a lot from the expertise of the private sector through the exchange of ideas and insights, and joint action has proved useful in Malaysia. The private sector has worked on the success of the strategic plan because it is a party involved in the preparation of the plan.
10: Emphasize the importance of values and ethics at all levels, from government officials to the youngest employees of each institution. He gave the example that Japan’s renaissance was caused by the Japanese people’s adherence to good values and morals, because the Japanese people want to produce the best and do not accept the production or provision of non-distinguished and high-quality service. The Japanese individual gives everything he has to produce the best. In Malaysia, we have tried to instill this spirit among Malaysians in all government and private institutions, changing values and the culture of production are essential and important for the success of the strategic plan, and he stressed the need to cultivate a culture of values and honesty for generations early.
11: For the efficiency of government institutions, especially those that issue various permits, and in order to overcome obstacles for investors, specific days have been set for the issuance of different permits so that no government institution has the right to delay any permit for the specified days. Therefore, we have eliminated a kind of administrative corruption and widespread bribery among government officials through this procedure.
12: We supported the privatization of government-owned enterprises, because we believe that the private sector runs enterprises more effectively and has more different skills than the public sector, and we believe that the role of government should be in public stewardship and regulation, not in competition with the private sector if we want to. for the private sector to lead the economy. (7)
Singapore’s economy is highly developed. Before the 1960s, Singapore was a trading country, but since then the economy has evolved and become more diverse and Singapore has become an important financial and commercial hub and transit hub. Tourism is also of great importance.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita per annum is about $17,598. Annual per capita income is one of the highest in Asia. People in Singapore enjoy a high standard of living and social welfare. There is a doctor for every 837 people, and a bed in a government hospital for every 269 people.
While Singapore’s natural resources are scarce, its people are its most important. Singapore’s unemployment rate is low at about 2%. About 28% of the workforce is engaged in manufacturing, 23% in trade, 22% in community and social and personal services, and 10% in transportation, storage and communications.
State-owned companies play a key role in Singapore’s economy. Sovereign Wealth Fund Cohesion Holdings holds the majority of shares in Singapore’s major national companies, such as Singapore Airlines, Sing Tel, ST Engineering and Media Core. Singapore’s economy is a major financier of the world’s FDI flow. Singapore also benefits from the inflow of international investors and institutions from investors and international institutions due to its attractive investment climate and stable political environment.
Exports, particularly electronics, chemicals and services, which include Singapore’s position as a regional wealth management center provide the economy’s primary source of income, allowing it to purchase the natural resources and raw materials it lacks. Moreover, water is scarce in Singapore] so it is defined as a valuable resource, along with the scarcity of land to be used in Bolow Smmacau. Singapore has a limited area of arable land which means that Singapore is based on agricultural engineering for agricultural production and consumption. Human resources are another vital issue with regard to the health of Singapore’s economy. Singapore’s economy is ranked second overall in the 2014 Scientific American Biotechnology Rankings with biobiopolis profiles.
It can therefore be said that Singapore relies on the concept of expanded intermediate trade to re-export trade, by purchasing, manufacturing and then re-exporting raw materials, such as wafer manufacturing and oil refining. Singapore also has a strategic port, making it more competitive than many neighboring countries in re-export activities. Singapore’s trade rate is among the highest in the world, averaging 400% in 2008-11.
The port of Singapore is the second busiest port in the world in terms of freight volume. In addition to the infrastructure and trained employment in the Port of Singapore, which is due to the success of Singapore’s education policy in providing trained employment, it is also a key port in facilitating market access for import and export, as well as providing the skills required to transfer imports. to exports.
The Singapore government encourages high levels of savings and investment through policies such as the Central Savings Fund, which is used to finance citizens’ health care and retirement needs. Most companies in Singapore are registered as private limited liability companies (known as “Private Limited Companies”). Singapore Private Limited is a separate legal entity, and shareholders are not responsible for the company’s debts beyond the amount of capital they have contributed to.
But after this introduction to the Singaporean economy, do you think it started with this strength?
Singapore as a small island with no natural resources at all, where he says in his memoirs Singapore did not have natural resources to
By exploring it, it is just an island occupying the smallest area in Southeast Asia, teeming with unemployment, poverty, corruption, housing crisis, economic stagnation, and in 1965 it was one of the biggest crises Singapore faced, as the British closed their bases, and Singapore lost a lot of jobs, and it is narrated Historians say Singapore’s independence from Malaysia was followed by a high rate of unemployment, a lack of infrastructure such as sanitation, a shortage of potable water supplies, and a race conflict, conditions that third world countries have faced and continue to face.
18.104.22.168. End the congestion and establish a new identity:
Thinking about how to end polarization and sectarian tension within the country, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity is wide spread within Singapore, while the Chinese and Malay populations were ethnically and linguistically divided, usually struggling in the streets, not to mention tension among the same community, such as tension. For example, among Western-educated Chinese, and those who have received communist education in middle schools, those traits that can be called the hallmarks of a failed state, coupled with communist anger and anti-power ism in the country.
The steps to impose sovereignty and independence in the country were also difficult, but they were successful, and while the Labor government requested international assistance and did not respond, Singapore’s leaders did not despair, knowing that their country should act alone. President Lee Kuan Yew faced many problems that were difficult to deal with at the same time without outside assistance, but the challenge he succeeded in being was to see how resources could be used according to priorities.
22.214.171.124. Work and nothing but work:
The government has organized large-scale campaigns to clean up the streets and uproot dirty places. They urged everyone, even ministers, to work with their own hands, even if their clothes were dirty, in order to serve the people.
Dozens of social centers have been built, i.e. large centers in cities and small ones in rural areas, places for education and talent revival,
The austerity process initially began by reducing the salaries of ministers from $2,600 to $2,000 a month, in order to give an example to others, as well as reducing employee allowances, the goal was to provide positive things within the framework of public order and the law.
As for the product of this austerity process, the savings were good but not harsh, as they included only 6,000 of the 14,000 employees of the government, and then the freezing of appointments, he noted that Singapore today has the highest value of salaries in the world, in terms of ministers and government men, which is what is known As one of them made a televised statement, they believe that “the job is not a mortgage, if you want to bring competent people to work with you in government, you have to pay them at the market price, salaries are healing, there is no justification for someone in government to work for a miserable salary,” he said. The other is that the salaries of ministers and their association with the private sector are linked to maintaining integrity, combating corruption and that promotions are the best, the bill of senior ministers and senior government officials is $100 million in an economy of $300 billion, which is a reasonable amount.
126.96.36.199. Planning to make Singapore a major financial and commercial hub:
The government set its sights on making Singapore a major financial and commercial center, and although it was economically common at the time that any country needed vast and remote areas to succeed in establishing a major industrial process, if it wanted to be an industrial state, but practically the size of Singapore was (nothing), and it did not “Is it possible for Singapore to become a financial and commercial center after the Malaysian market was lost after independence?” But thanks to good planning and specialized work, it’s already been done.
188.8.131.52. The establishment of a major university and a center for political studies:
This is to educate and educate senior civil servants about Singapore’s economic and social problems.
Despite the pitfalls of the first six months of government, he was able to lay the foundations for several important government policies, including a construction project for Singapore’s development and reconstruction, the imposition of advanced economic ideas such as the replanning of Singapore’s port, the establishment of an economic tribunal, programs to reduce population growth, and strengthen The law in the face of corruption to provide additional returns, and the formation of a new agency, the Bureau of Investigation into Corruption Practices, in addition to the establishment of the Housing and Development Authority, which was the beginning of an intensive program of public housing, ideas that may seem usual or traditional now, but they were completely out of the box if we talked About the ’60s.
184.108.40.206. Attention to human resources is the first way to renaissance:
This is the attention the government has given in investing in its people, and here was the expansion of technical schools, in addition to paid training abroad for untrained workers to be qualified for high-paying jobs in electronics, ship repair and petrochemicals, and in the way of The government consolidated the remaining independent unions within the so-called National Trade Union, which was controlled by the government, creating intensive employment, providing training and establishing a strong relationship with companies, with the result that workers benefited from government incentives that provide them with training. Rehabilitation and income, in return, were to protect investors and spare them the labor uprisings against them.
Here, the Singapore government was not afraid to flow money from abroad, but it was more concerned with reducing the immigration of its citizens, and made great efforts to persuade workers to work in Singapore’s society, and the main concern was the realization of Singapore’s leaders that trained and more competent people were able to improve the efficiency of Performance and creating a growth rate.
The (Abdul Hamid Shoman Foundation) in Amman hosted the President of the Singapore Development Agency, Dr. Philip Yu, in an intensive dialogue meeting, in which he reviewed the story of Singapore’s success and its transition from the ranks of third world countries, to be a first world country, and the educational and industrial renaissance it has achieved.
During the Singapore Expert Meeting organized by the Foundation, at the Royal Cultural Center entitled “Innovation from thought to success – Singapore story, “Dr. Yu summarized how this transformation was planned to grow the industrial sector and contribute to a large part of Singapore’s GDP, noting the transition Successful from a country that depends on its economy to export to a country with an industrial economy.
Yu pointed out in the meeting, which was followed by a crowd of 1,000 people, that the period of the 1980s was characterized by accelerated globalization, following which Singapore presented a new national economic strategy known as the “Second Industrial Revolution”, pointing out that since then, the focus of the industrial sector has become Geared towards a shift to capital-intensive operations.
This transformation was based on the following points:
220.127.116.11. Unite behind a national project:
The feeling of everyone in the national project and taking advantage of the development steps, was an incentive for them to advance the Singaporean economy as working with a collective desire to build facilitates a lot and removes potential obstacles in resisting change, so the results of the work begin to appear faster, thus increasing the desire to work.
18.104.22.168. Spreading the concept of partnership in rights and duties:
The principle of partnership between all on the one hand, and the principle of equivalence of rights and duties on the other, made everyone feel that “he has a stake in the development cake”.
These concepts make it much easier for the administration of the state and the implementers of strategic development programs, because the citizen’s awareness of his rights and duties contributes to the preservation of public property and prevents the waste of public money and employs the allowance from it in the best way.
22.214.171.124. Small beginnings:
The Singapore government has focused on upgrading its low-cost economy, laying the foundation for Singapore’s progress in its knowledge-intensive and innovative economy, supporting small businesses and paying attention to the strengthening of simple industries and gradually reaching heavy industries.
126.96.36.199. Human development:
Singapore’s experience in economic development began by first benefiting from long-term human capital development.
Attention to the human factor is the true measure of the development and renaissance of nations, which has prompted the Singapore government to invite many foreign senior science pioneers to take over the management of local research and skills development institutes and teams.
This trend has led to great growth in local industries, which in turn has reduced the incoming products ready and increased exports.
188.8.131.52. Supporting young people:
Singapore’s experience in supporting young people through grants with a focus on medical and applied fields has been and continues to be one of the most important development projects if young people are the real workforce in the development of nations, this trend has generated generations of mechanical and mental knowledge, this knowledge has produced sustainability in development.
184.108.40.206. Continuous evaluation:
The need to strengthen the relationship between hospitals and different research centers, and to focus on evaluating experiences and considering failure at each stage of learning,
The development of plans and strategies should also take into account that success will not be a permanent ally, it may be faced with obstacles and sometimes failure now that this will not affect the overall strategy developed.
According to Yu, most young beginners can’t produce the idea alone, so we’ve recruited experts from abroad to hire them to qualify and build, ensuring a happy ending of a gradual shift to knowledge and innovation.
The Government of Singapore selects the best and poorest students, enabling them to compete with the rich and stand out as strong in front of them.
The Singapore government has been alerted to the importance of education, raising its standards across all educational levels, including young people, by qualifying and supporting them to lead the process of innovation and innovation so that they can start their own companies and provide funding for them.
The Government of Singapore has sent its students to English-language countries such as Britain, Canada and the United States of America, providing a new generation of Singaporean workers with intellectual knowledge, not just manual.
220.127.116.11. Crisis Management Strategy:
Singapore has been suffering from many crises such as unemployment, housing crisis, administrative corruption and economic stagnation, yet it has no experience in the industrial economy, these challenges required prudent management and proper planning to meet it, which prompted the government to take care of individuals and educate them, encourage investment and labor operation.
18.104.22.168. Take advantage of past experiences:
Singapore’s ability to take advantage of the “look abroad” policy, determine the quality of the benefit it has gained from the experiences of countries that emerged from the development recession, and rebuild and maintain its economy for this time has been very high, enabling the appropriate implementation of them and avoiding potential failure.
Singapore has also maintained high and long-term growth rates, despite its lack of natural resources and a broad domestic market. (8)
||Singapore dollar per US dollar
Currency exchange rate (9)
- lack of vision and strategic planning:
After independence, Sudan inherited the institution of the colonial state, which remained the same, and even made us injure and maim, especially during the rescue. From the dawn of independence to the present day, Sudan has been experiencing a general crisis manifested in the ongoing and renewed civil wars since 1955, political instability, the rule of dengue living and the absence of development, the collapse of services, health, education and others, the exhaustion of civil society and the loss of confidence in parties and asylum To the tribe and the clan, the feeling of alienation towards the Sudanese entity, the bleeding of the arms and minds… Etc. The root causes of this crisis are due to the failure of the Sudanese elites and the failure of their visions, which have been in a state of confrontation since the dawn of independence, to accomplish the founding tasks of building a post-independence state, which remained deferred and accumulated, and then worsened and complicated by the inadequate and erroneous remedies at the hands of civil regimes. The military, which has been in power since independence, has focused only on how it remains in power. These founding functions include:
The type of system of government and political system appropriate to the reality of our country and its characteristics, in order to achieve good diversity management to culminate in the equitable participation of power between the various races, ethnicities and national and regional groups that make up the Sudanese entity, and achieve a healthy political practice based on a Sudanese formula for democracy Pluralism, not the Westminster formula, combines the values of absolute democracy with the characteristics of our country, and links democracy to livelihood, drinking water, treatment services and education… Otherwise, democracy would be just chatter on the banks of the Nile. Equitable distribution of resources and wealth among the same components, in order to lift the suffering of living from the citizen, to lift inequality and neglect on the parties, and to give precedence to areas of ethnic, national and social tension within the framework of a scientific economic project that takes into account the non-deterioration of the production sites of the economic surplus (parties) ), and not to drain the centers and sources of scientific expertise (center).
Addressing issues of identity and the relationship of religion to the state.
We cannot reduce the political and social conflict in Sudan to mere power struggles, the conflict between the center and the parties, or the conflict between secularists and Islamists, and will not end once regimes have changed, just as it has not been resolved by the secession of the South. In my estimation, it is a conflict resulting from the absence of a national project assembled on it, which answers questions of the establishment of a national state-building in Sudan. Sudan’s crises can only be remedied by consensus on this project. Sudan’s ethnicities and cultures need each other within the framework of unity and diversity integration and through the historical bargaining mechanism. The national project is not accomplished by a single party, a single class, or a party alliance, nor is it built on a particular ideology. It requires the contribution of all and not to exclude the other. Its essence is the convergence of the movement of the Centre with the movement of the parties, the convergence and alliance of civil society and civil society, and the integration of civil society and the political movement. The foundations of the national project are based on the foundations of the values of freedom, political reform, sustainable development, science and knowledge, enlightenment, religious reform and the love of action. (10)
In fact, after a lot of readings and readings and the writings of experts and opinions of political and economic writers about the problems and roots of the crisis in Sudan and the findings of many explanations and analyses, some of which touched reality and some of them went a little more than all according to his vision and the angle of his perspective.
I found myself fluctuating between supporters and different people, and because I am a Sudanese citizen I lived and raised on this land and suffered from its crises that extended and passed on its generations later. I found myself formulating the subject more clearly if I consider that talking about identity, poverty and ignorance and all these things are the consequences of one major crisis: the lack of a unified vision for Sudan and its people or otherwise the lack of a strategic plan to lead the country to the ports of the civilized world.
If we look at the world around us, we will not find ourselves the only ones who have suffered from these crises and problems. There are many countries that have gone through these crises and are more severe than them, but the emergence of a particular generation or group of people at some point in the history of these nations has caused change, since the presence of a certain group in or even someone at the top of the leadership ladder is working to develop a vision and formulate a specific strategy for the future of the country that will make Change.
At the highest level of this study I read a series of examples of experiences that confirmed what I’m trying to sum up here.
From independence until the December 2018 revolution, Sudan has been subject to the greed of politicians and intellectuals, sometimes these groups have not only been peacefully fighting among themselves, but have spread their evil to the introduction of the army and its exploitation in the struggle over governance and hiding behind a weapon as long as it is intended to protect the people. and stand against the division of the land.
The Sudan crisis has remained the same despite the fluctuating rule between the military and civilians, and also despite two peaceful revolutions that confirmed the people’s great awareness, but the prophet who advanced the Anzac crowd was not at the level of the event.
Sudan reaches its third peaceful revolution at the end of last year, so that the Sudanese people have made history that may not have existed before for a people in the struggle against dictatorship and authoritarianism.
A number of crises are almost the main cause of everything we see now in Sudan that can be listed as follows:
- Conflicts and identity crisis:
Sudan has long suffered from the weight of tribalism and territorialism, and its internal components remained in a state of constant conflict, and whenever some nearly tried to put out the fire in one of its parts, another flared more ferocious than the previous fire, this conflict, although it is often for reasons related to wealth land and personal and tribal property, but he often veered toward tribalism. These nefarious differences have also often been exploited by politicians and rulers who have presented their personal interests over the interests of the country and its people.
It is not possible to find definitive and definitive solutions to this dilemma, which has deprived Sudan of significant resources that could have been used on its way from an imported consumer state to an exporter with multiple products and services.
Despite the enormous resources enjoyed by Sudan, this sentence has always been the slogan raised by the successive authorities that ruled the country, especially in the recent period, in which many people in Sudan have been subjected to extreme poverty and extreme marginalization, for which they were forced either to emigrate or to beg, this diamond, called the lack of possibilities is a reflection of failure elsewhere in the administration of the state.
The lack of resources, of course, disappears from the lack of resources, as a country like Japan, for example, is almost without resources, but it is one of the advanced economies in the world, thanks to good planning and optimal management that has transformed the country from a fishing and agriculture-based economy to a privileged lycée industrial economy.
Boycott or, correctly, we can call it “international isolation”, a reality imposed by the United States of America on Sudan nearly three decades ago, causing the collapse of all facilities and activities within the state and even the life of the citizen indirectly, and this is also because of the failure of what is within the administration of dr. And a.
Foreign relations in today’s world is considered an economic power as the world has become a small village where goods, goods and benefits overlap, what is cultivated here is consumed there and what is manufactured there is consumed here and so, no country can succeed in this world without contacting those around it and even distant countries even with the availability of resources You need the market that buys it, the equipment you work in and the investors who take it out.
Creating problems with the world around you is mismanagement and the lack of a strategic plan that includes good neighborliness and the durability of foreign relations makes you a failed state.
22.214.171.124. Political turmoil:
Sudan is one of the countries that gained independence early in the region and has already entered the system of civil government and advanced in this regard on many neighboring countries, but the civil order soon collapsed through military coups and the intervention of the army in the affairs of governance in addition to thought The shallow of political elites that failed to agree on a single national project that unites the country and develops strategic visions that achieve the goals of sustainable development and economic, social and political stability of the country.
All of the above are considered obstacles that have broken every attempt to reform since ancient times and the reason for this is that all efforts in this regard were fair solutions that caused waste of more time and money in useless things and none of the successive regimes succeeded in the rule of Sudan in dealing with the roots The problem is to develop a strategic plan to get the country out of these crises, which have caused many opportunities to benefit from the real potential of the Sudanese economy.
Perhaps now, after the third revolution, characterized by the great political and social awareness of the young class that led the revolution, a change may change the issue of strategic planning as the basis for any move to accomplish something.
Chapter four-4- Criticism of data sources
- Chapter four-4- Criticism of data sources:
4.1 External criticism:
With regard to the history of writing sources, it should be noted here that they were all written years after these historical experiments and therefore the numbers and statistics are recorded in more than one site and circulated for research and evaluation.
Part of it was also mentioned by people who were witnesses to the event itself or in the position of responsibility now at the venue of the event, for example, the experiences of Malaysia and Singapore, which have been discussed in the study.
As for objectivity, the writers spoke with objectivity, especially since the articles and sources of topics came from books, websites and pages specialized in the economic field in general, with some observations that some of them wanted to highlight the role or glorification of a particular leader or leader in a certain era and attributed credit to him in the renaissance as an example of this Writings on the Party of Development and Justice in Turkey, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in Malaysia and Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore, although this does not explain the veracity of the information provided.
As for the state of health of the authors, the information available is not enough for me to determine the level of their mental, physical and psychological health, but there is no indication of the opposite, as the writings as I mentioned earlier came from specialized websites and pages, so the responsibility lies directly with these institutions.
We can say that the circumstances of the writing of the information allowed for the acceptable limit of press freedom and there is nothing threatening or pressuring the book in addition to the information that concerns the figures originally came from international statistical institutions and competent government agencies as some of them pointed out and there is no room for manipulation.
We can say that the circumstances of the writing of the information allowed for the acceptable reduction of press freedom and there is nothing threatening or putting pressure on the writers, most of them if not all of them have written their writings in the last five years and I think out of the reach of any entities with usurped power in addition to the information that concerns The figures originally came from international statistical institutions and competent government agencies, some of whom have indicated that they cannot be manipulated.
The writings in general focused on united-worded topics in the sense that they did not appear within the terms of reference outside the economic sphere, so the contradiction is highly unlikely if the writers are published within the framework of defining a particular role, whether for the importance of planning or a particular entity, such as maintaining the overall theme.
Although I am unable to compare all the figures, I can say that the writings in general have agreed with the competent authorities to issue statistical figures on income levels, GDP, export value and others, so they are considered reliable to a good degree.
4.2. Internal criticism:
Of course the current situation in today’s reality we cannot be sure that the writing was done in the written by the writer personally due to the modern methods used in writing and sending topics to the role of printing and publishing, but in return we can be sure of this through the publishing institutions, which are the sites that put the name The author of the article, which becomes directly responsible for any reference to misinformation or misleading, which is followed by legal procedures, I do not think that these institutions risk entering into it in order to preserve their status and credibility with the recipient.
The language of writing and its modernity can be touched by looking at the topics, which can be said to be very proportional to the language of the times and its methods, as I mentioned earlier as modern writings and digital data in its entirety belong to experiences not far historically, all of which date back to the period after the middle and late last century which many of those present are experiencing.
Also, the sources are all up-to-date and rely on information available as mentioned earlier and are not considered exclusive to the author and are not historical documents or rare materials that are feared to be lost or damaged.
In general, sources of information are good and can be consulted at any moment with ease.
Chapter-5-recommendation and Conclusion
- Chapter five – Conclusion and recommendation
These recommendations, as in the case of the study, take Sudan as a symbol of the problems facing similar countries while at the same time giving possible solutions derived from previous experiences.
As we agreed earlier, the great crisis that Sudan has witnessed in my opinion is a crisis of vision and strategic planning that has produced a number of other crises such as the failure to deal with diversity and mismanagement, where there was no plan to manage this diversity and benefit from it, as well as the lack of equitable distribution of wealth and authorities Over the past decades, this has caused wars and conflicts.
This is the first blow that will return to the roots of the crisis and then progress to address each crisis benefits individually benefiting from the experiences of the past, which can be synthesized to suit the Sudanese reality in particular and every other situation in the same context and we can enumerate the recommendations related to the situation of Sudan as follows:
Diversity in all its forms is supposed to be a force and creativity and there are many models in the world that confirm this doctrine, the United States of America (the great power of the world), but in the case of mismanagement and surrender to tribalism and nationalism, it could pose a great threat to the rupture of the one body and this what happened in Sudan.
The ratio of Sudan, the economic importance of addressing the mismanagement of diversity lies in the fact that most, if not all, areas where conflict occurs, are already rich in wealth, whether they are from agriculture, water, oil or even tourism resources, as well as other countries in the region.
Sudan has historically been a multicultural, multi-religious and ethnic country in which Arabs and Africans have blended, Christianity has overlapped with Islam and multilingualism has been so diverse that it is almost countable.
For the problems that are the magnitude of the disasters for Sudan until it became separated for two parts of the north and south, it might have been worse.
This type of crisis was not the exclusive domain of Sudan, for example, a crisis of a similar kind that passed on Malaysia when the majority of Malays suffered from ignorance, neglect and lack of potential.
At the time, the Malaysian Government was keen to provide a great deal of positive discrimination in favor of this group in order to draw it with the rest of society.
This effective solution in addition to fair laws that do not differentiate between citizens based on gender or any affiliation can remove all differences and grudges between the sons of the one country, once the citizens feel that they are equal in rights and duties, all the reasons that fuel feelings and conflicts are eliminated and become It is easy to do development and reconstruction.
Therefore, the first thing that the Government of Sudan should do specifically and all countries suffering from the weight of conflicts and disputes to review laws and how to distribute public services and rights to citizens is the beginning of a path towards expanding the economy and taking advantage of all the possibilities available in the state. to achieve a successful economic transformation.
In fact, even after the secession, Sudan remained one of the richest countries in the region with the resources and advantages available for investment, but the term lack of possibilities is only the embodiment of the failure of successive government departments since independence.
Sudan has since followed the same rudimentary economic approach that relies on the export of live meat and raw cash crops such as oil yaws and Arabic gum, while the surrounding countries have developed, world economies have made progress and countries have emerged thanks to the shift to manufacturing and industries. transformative. It has extended to what is now known as the knowledge economy.
Sudan needs only strategic plans, as each of the above models has studied and defined the strengths, which are many, where Sudan is characterized by the availability of water, arable land, minerals, diversity in weather, tourist areas and many other resources lost and neglected in Present.
The establishment of factories to manufacture meat instead of exporting them in primitive initial form will not cost the state a lot of money, but in return adds double its value first where the skins of these organisms can be used to manufacture the next leather products employing thousands of works and adding real value to the economy.
Also, agriculture, for example, Sudan produces about 80% of the world’s production of Gum Arabic, which is included in many foodstuffs all over the world, and this product can be converted into many forms with the value of twice the initial model exported and the situation is similar to what happens with cash crops and for oily beans.
The fact is that Sudan has a real chance of achieving a qualitative leap in economic transformation only, and it lacks proper planning for this process.
- Strengthening foreign relations:
When the rescue government came to power in Sudan in the late 1980s, it came up with slogans no less revolutionary than those raised by the left in the 1960s and 1970s, but this time with new vocabulary. From “supporting the vulnerable” to the project of overthrowing existing regimes in Arab countries and helping fundamentalist organizations to gain power there.
Destabilizing the neighboring countries and supporting the opposition movements in them, through the reception of revolutionaries from all sides and towards (carlos) to Osama bin Laden and other leaders of radical organizations. It ended with the creation of the Arab-Islamic People’s Congress, which represented the channel of international polarization and the beginning of the formation of an “Islamic internationalism”.
No country in the African and Arab oceans has been bothered by complaining about the Sudanese regime providing shelter and support to opposition movements: Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Chad, Eritrea, Uganda, Ethiopia to name but a few. Even the United States, which has not hesitated to include Sudan in the list of countries that support terrorism, has even moved beyond the proximity of the united states.
The bottom line is that foreign relations in the past three decades have been disastrous in every sense of the word, these practices have directly contributed to the development of the Sudan’s economy and its suffering from dealing with the rest of the world after the sanctions imposed by the United States of America on Sudan as a result of this policy The country has lost all opportunities to make economic transfers while the world is advancing in various fields of research and innovation.
The restoration of foreign relations with the world opens new doors and offers many facilities in the way of trade and joining international organizations for the organization of trade and economic transactions.
One of the priorities for promoting any economy is to pave the way through good-neighborly relations first and then open up to the distant world.
Sudan since the transition of its political affairs to the hands of the national elite guaranteed the transition, since independence there was a transitional constitution and the October revolution came to an unfinished transitional rule, and then the Sudanese entered the long era of the “Mayan era”, and then came the era of the uprising in which the establishment was not completed, until the separation of South, but Sudan is still in a transition and establishment, no matter how much political parties are aware of the origin of the Sudan crisis, expressed clearly in their speech: “Sudan’s crises are old and have accumulated negative aspects and have grown across the national era after their tensions began with the causes of politics. “The unbalanced colonial development that the British administration has chosen to achieve its own interests, but the national regimes that are violated have all inherited the same colonial policies, and political parties and educated elites have failed to conclude a loyalty contract that brings together the components of the Sudanese country on a Sudanese identity that serves as the basis for an inclusive national unity.”
The continuing transition of the Sudanese state has cast a heavy shadow over the deeper crisis, which has confronted all national governments, and has been approached by all political parties as well, without reaching an end, the problem of South Sudan.
However, the round table conference identified the complexities and complexities of the crisis for reasons related to the geography of the country and its human composition, and therefore for historical political reasons due to colonialism, but its continued support is the mistakes that successive national governments have been making since the first independence period. The military, which dominated the rule of the country for more years than the democratic civil regimes, that all the military regimes that followed the rule of Sudan believed that this national political issue was a problem of security and order. (11)
In the end, we can say that Sudan has remained politically troubled throughout this period and its children have not been able to agree on a permanent constitution that determines how to govern the country without addressing the question of who will govern because the constitutions govern the forms of government in countries and determine the nature of the relationship between the people and the government, because this is important. The revolutionary government or the transitional government must speed up and immediately arrange the situation for permanent stability in the country through laws and legislation that criminalize the methods of seizing power by violence or through the intervention of the army and security forces. Develop the necessary plans for the process of economic transformation in the country the latter is by focusing on specific sectors, as successful countries have done in their economic experiments, and the most important of these sectors are:
It is the first pillar in every building, whether purely economic or renaissance, the process of economic transformation cannot be built with ignorance or it will be like pouring water into a perforated pot and education that helps economic transformation is not basic education directly but university education and vocational education but since Sudan is suffering from a total destruction of education.
In addition to ruining the productive sectors in the rescue economy also ruined the educational system by changing the curriculum and reduced the educational ladder from 12 years to 11 years divided between eight years of basic education and three years of secondary school, which is contrary to all the theories of education, which does not recommend schools that provide for students from the age of seven. 15th or 16th in the same school. Reducing the educational ladder from 12 years to 11 does not allow coverage of all information and extracurricular activities such as associations, sports, visits to museums and important institutions in the society that students need. It also dismissed most qualified teachers and reduced the education budget, which increased the number of pupils in the classroom scoring to numbers that did not allow for the absorption of lessons and increased the expenses on pupils beyond the capacity of many families, leaving school large numbers of children. The result is a huge number of young people who do not have the level of knowledge of languages, mathematics and science that most businesses require in today’s economy, so most of them work in marginal jobs such as leadership, so it is more important to reform education as an important step to change the composition of the Sudanese economy to become an economy. My production is expanding to treat the problem of inertia. In this paper I will try to summarize some of the problems facing education in Sudan and make some proposals for education reform. This is not an integrated plan for education reform, but rather an agenda for discussion of the numbers of a strategic plan for education reform.
The importance of defining the philosophy of the education system
The first step to education reform is to define the philosophy of education. Yes, the result of education is to get a job, but for graduates to succeed in their jobs, education must include more than the narrow skills that jobs need. Education must prepare citizens to become wide-minded, understanding that they are part of Sudanese society, the great human society, the importance of human values such as fraternity, justice, peace, our role in protecting the environment and other creatures that share us on this planet. It should also train them to think independently, creatively, entrepreneurially, explore, not to be afraid of experimentation and acceptance of failure as part of learning and growth as a human being. These human foundations are not innovations from outside Sudanese society, but are derived from the teachings of Sudanese society.
They should learn that education does not end with graduation but continues throughout life. Based on these principles, the curriculum is adopted for all levels of study to keep pace with the needs of the 21st century in mathematics, science, technology, environment, history and geography of the world, giving special attention to Africa and the Arab world and expanding the history and geography of Sudan with the re-approach of geography. The old one in the primary schools when the curriculum included visits to real children in all regions of Sudan, should be visits to a student and increase the number of visits to make sure that they include all groups in Sudan.
The curriculum of Sudan’s history has been faithfully rewritten, however painful, and taught in a sensitive way that leads to the reconciliation of Sudanese and encourages them to look to the future and assures them that Sudan is a country where everyone is equal. Interest in sports and cultural activities such as literary societies and art societies such as theater and other arts and visits to museums, theaters and cinemas, these suggestions may seem strange to some because the dark times that the country went through did not destroy institutions but buried many beautiful activities for education In Sudan, when I was a pupil in the 1950s in elementary and middle schools, these activities were in the schools. Children should also be taught to love reading, exploring and writing by giving them duties from their environment, for example, assigning children in primary schools to write the family tree and the riddles that their grandmothers and mothers need to write about animals and trees in their neighborhoods.
Accordingly, the curriculum can be built at the higher levels to match the levels in the developed countries. These proposals require the reform of the Bakht Al-Rida Institute to lead reforms and the creation of new curricula, which is the key role of (bakht al-Rida) Institute before it is destroyed like other institutions in Sudan and can be used by UNESCO, expatriates and experts from friendly countries known for advanced education systems. To train current teachers to teach the new curriculum can convert one of the universities that opened the days of rescue without qualified professors or possibilities for an institute to train teachers and can use expatriates and professors from friendly countries to teach at that university and there must be an integrated coordination between those The university was satisfied to make sure that teachers were trained to teach the new curriculum.
Since colonial times, girls’ education has been second in comparison to boys’ education, for example, there were fewer schools than boys’ schools, and many families do not care about girls’ education as much as boys, even families that allow their daughters to attend school do not exempt them from domestic work. therefore, they are unable to perform their school duties. In 1961, the University of Khartoum paid about 30 out of 400 girls, which represents the number of girls’ secondary schools compared to boys’ schools. Despite all these obstacles, many Sudanese women who have found the best of their education have persevered and succeeded and occupied prestigious positions inside and outside Sudan.
But many who have not had the luck of education have succeeded as business women and I cannot imagine the level of success and contribution to the progress of society if they find opportunities for education.
Positive excellence must therefore be exercised to compensate women for the injustices of the past. First, equal education opportunities for girls are equal to those of boys and investment in education and training for women who are not suited to traditional education by teaching them reading, writing, numeracy, housekeeping and skills that help them if we choose to work outside the home.
- Technical and vocational education:
The success of the German economy in avoiding the degree of inertia that occurred in the American and British economies as a result of the transformation of traditional industries of third world countries can be attributed to the German education system, which consists of two sections of academic department leading to university studies and the other technical education training students For jobs in industries that require workers with high technical skills and understanding of the modern factory environment. These schools cooperate with 430,000 industrial companies and 80% of those companies use their graduates.
On the other hand, the U.S. education system has not been equipped to meet the needs of modern technology-based industries. The result is a high level of inertia in traditional industrial areas and a large shortage of modern industries for qualified workers in science, mathematics and technology. Industrial schools must therefore be rehabilitated, and their curricula and equipment modernized to help the Sudanese economy become a modern economy.
The opportunity is favorable to get help from international organizations and several countries including Germany, which established vocational training centers and was the first industrial country to declare its support for the revolution and there is talk that some German companies are ready to invest in Sudan if this is the reality of those companies will be willing to support Technical education by participating in the preparation of curricula and providing equipment and trainers to train teachers in those schools. The graduates of these schools played an important role when the factory was built in the 1960s and they could play the same role in the next industrial renaissance.
- Hunger is the enemy of learning:
It is difficult to pay attention and absorption even to adults if they are hungry let the children in the stage of growth where they need to eat a tampon to grow the right body and mind.
Studies of doctors and educators have shown that hunger affects the ability to pay attention and absorb lessons. In many cases, children cannot sit quietly and grill their colleagues. Breakfast should therefore be given to all pupils free of charge. Give free breakfast to all children so that the poor don’t feel embarrassed.
Even after the secession, Sudan is still considered one of the largest Arab and African countries in an area, and Sudan has a geographical location in the heart of the African continent, and adjacent to a number of countries, making it a transit and center for shopping that provides the markets of neighboring countries with goods and services, where they are available in Sudan. Huge medical possibilities and resources of vast arable land estimated at 200 million acres, water resources, a variety of rain, rivers, surface and hollow water, and a diversity of climate along the country from north to south includes the climate of savanna rich and impoverished climate and tropical tropical climate and The Mediterranean Sea, in addition to a wealth of 103 million head of cows, light, goats and camels, depends on natural pastures and forests estimated at about 250 million acres, and there is a huge mineral wealth that has not yet been exploited, including gold, silver, chromium and asbestos. Mangena, gypsum, maca, talc, lead, uranium and other besides oil and natural gas, all these riches cannot be utilized in the presence of major constraints, so it is necessary to work on the following:
National development can only be achieved in an atmosphere of political stability that provides reassurance and safety, and in this context:
Apply foreign relations with neighboring countries and strengthen ties with the friendly and friendly countries and seek Sudan’s occupation of its natural position in the international community
. Seeking national reconciliation and stability for work to achieve development and well-being
Efforts to bring peace and stop the civil war.
Completion of the political and institutional construction of the state.
The restructuring of the Sudanese economy through a comprehensive program of economic reform, which included:
Reduce the role of the state in economic work and productive activity by following the policy of privatization and giving the private sector the opportunity.
Freeing foreign trade and encouraging exports.
Free prices and stop supporting goods and services.
The balance sheet is achieved, the deficit is reduced, the volume of money is controlled, inflation rates are reduced and a reasonable balance in the balance of payments is achieved.
Reform of the tax system, reduce and maintain some direct and indirect taxes and apply the value-added tax system, and review the categories of customs exposure by exempting and reducing customs duties.
Increase exports, diversity of their markets and expand their base by entering commodities, the most important of which are oil, gold and some industrial products.
To accommodate high levels of foreign direct investment in petroleum, industrialization, agriculture and transport.
In the light of the policy of economic liberalism, a securities market was established in 1994 when the primary market was established, which is the market in which securities are issued for public offering. In 1995, the secondary market, the stock market, was launched to contribute to the advancement of the economy and to provide the opportunity to invest in projects of economic feasibility, within the framework of the law of the rights of shareholders and participants in the investment process, and in view of the reality of the experience we find that many companies The contribution is contributed by non-Sudanese investors who enjoy each other’s chairmanship or the presidency of its board of directors.
All of this leads us to invite foreigners to get to know this market and its law and the benefits it produces for them so that they can invest their money
The project has the following guarantees:
Failure to complete, confiscate or remove property for real estate in whole or in part for the public benefit, except by law and in return for fair compensation.
The project’s funds are not seized, confiscated, frozen or detained except by judicial order.
To ensure that the money invested in the event that the project is not executed, liquidated or disposed of in any way in any way or in part in the currency in which the purchase of any obligations due by law is transferred, and may reexport machinery, equipment, equipment, transportation and other items.
Ensure that profits and the cost of capital transfer in the currency in which the capital or loan was imported in the maturity history.
The project is allowed to import raw materials that are needed after the project is completed in the register of exporters and importers automatically.
To ensure the freedom of the privileges granted to the project, the law prohibits any administration from implementing the privileges granted under the provisions of this Law.
- Economic components:
- The agricultural sector:
The total agricultural land amounts to 200 million acres (an acre equal to 4,200 square meters)’ and the total used land is only 40 million acres, equivalent to 20% of the total area suitable for agricultural production. Agricultural land is concentrated on the banks of the Nile River and its tributaries in what is known as the wild plains and is characterized by high fertility and economic output, which is suitable for the cultivation of cotton of all kinds, peanuts, wheat, sugar cane, vegetables, pulses, spices and fruits of all kinds. Etc.
(b) The real estate wealth sector:
The most important thing that distinguishes Sudanese meat and animal products is that it is of high quality because of its dependence on natural pastures, which are completely devoid of any large amounts of feed associated with organic materials and their compounds, the vast plains and climate regions that have been shown have given a significant percentage Sudan enjoys a huge wealth that will enable it to fill the gap in the Arab world.
(C) Industrial sector:
The enormous economic resources of agricultural, hayand and trans-Sudanese production are the most important foundations for the development of an industrial base, including these industries:
Food industries such as sweets, biscuit, hair, Saskatchewan and pasta, as well as the use of vegetables, fruits and fish, as well as… The textile industry includes fabrics of all kinds in addition to yarn and tricot … Etc. leather and shoes industry. The sugar industry has four sugar factories in addition to the Kanana sugar factory, which is considered a successful model for joint Arab investment. Food zeoettes of various kinds of sesame zit, bean oil, sunflower oil and shami corn… Etc. soap and detergent industries. Ready-made clothes. Gas water industry and ice industry. Chemical industries. Glass making. The manufacture of sponges and plostons. The manufacture of parts of the country. Plastic industry. Home and library furniture. Industries for the collection of electrical appliances. Industries for the collection of agricultural machinery, trucks and cars. Pharmaceutical industries. Engineering and home industries. Cement industry.
(d) The oil sector:
Sudan is one of the richest countries in the wealth of the earth. The oil, some of which has been exploited at the moment, is only one of these riches. The importance of oil comes from the fact that it is the main engine of the various economic sectors.
(e) The under-construction sector:
Road networks are one of the most important areas of investment due to the vast area of Sudan and the distance of its limbs, which covers the current road network about four thousand kilometers long. This network connects The Port sedan Port to production sites in the east, center and south-west. While the state plans to establish about 5,000 kilometers of roads, the state will introduce some external roads for construction, such as Khartoum Aswan (The Arab City of Egypt) to be connected to the city of Alexandria. The second continental road links Sudan through the city of Juba, the capital of South Sudan and South Africa.
The third road links Sudan to western African countries and other countries bordering the Atlantic. This is in addition to the road that is being built to link eastern Sudan with eastern African countries through the state of Athens, as well as the internal road networks that the state plans to establish and are now on the table for investment.
- Research and planning centers (Tink Tank):
The possession and employment of states and societies has become the criterion of strength, as this constitutes the basis for the possession of wealth and sophistication in all areas of life, the progress of civilized nations did not come from a vacuum, hence the importance of research centers and studies, which was metaphorically called the fifth power. For the vital role it plays, and therefore many developing countries and third world countries began to try to catch up with the world, and expressed more interest and support to establish these centers and employ them and invest them in order to achieve the state to keep pace with scientific and intellectual development and live with the dictates of the environment The prevailing strategy and the implementation of its multiple strategies to ensure prosperity, security and stability in a rapidly changing world is no longer a place of ignorance and dependence.
The beginnings of these centers originated within the prestigious universities in the West at the end of the 12th century, and began to grow and develop until the early 19th century, when research centers began to appear outside universities, where the Royal Institute of Defense Studies was established in Britain in 1831, and then spread in The United States of America is largely the result of the support of major donors and intellectuals to create centers where researchers and leaders from the public and private sectors meet to discuss and deliberate on global issues. After World War II, the sector expanded significantly to take a clear direction towards harnessing scientific research to serve the political orientations of the state, and in the present era, almost all governments of the developed world are based on the analysis and recommendations of the research centers in their decisions, and it is important to note that most The Centers for International Studies and Research were formed as a result of important events in a country or because of pressing issues that necessitated the search for the best solutions.
The nature of the tasks performed by these centers reflects the importance of the role they can play in influencing decision-making or policy-making, and in developed societies the link between comprehensive development and scientific and applied research, including surveys and research, is clearly demonstrated. And field studies. The main function of the research centers is (analysis of reality, and providing future visions in order to promote a new reality or develop the current reality to a better level, according to academic references and strategies away from improvisation, or monolithic view, which led some thinkers and politicians to name these centers With think tanks, the function of finding and putting facts in its scientific framework is one of the most important functions of research centers.
There are many functions and roles that make up the research and studies centers to complete and can be summed up as follows:
Conducting theoretical and applied scientific studies and research in the specialized aspects and analyzing the effects of local, regional and international variables in economic, political, social and other aspects.
Holding specialized scientific conferences and seminars in accordance with the functions of the centers.
Organizing lectures and panel discussions that deal with topics imposed by existing and future variables and their political, economic and social impacts on the local, regional and international arena.
– Form a link between the sources of information and its beneficiaries.
Conducting research and studies on the analysis of problems facing the public policies of the state.
Providing advice on urgent or immediate policy concerns or developments.
Evaluating government programmers and projects fairly and impartially and in the public interest.
Providing interpretation and guidance on initiatives and policies and facilitating their absorption to the public.
Providing the basic competencies and expertise needed for the state to prepare public policies.
Bridging the gap between knowledge and application through analysis and lessons learned.
– To identify the priorities of development in the community, and what are the easiest and fastest ways to achieve them through the use of available local resources and possibilities.
Spreading new ideas and thinking patterns among policy makers and members of society.
It does political dialogue between decision makers and local communities.
It is very important to know that the successful economic transformations that have taken place in many countries and transformed them from stagnant economies to the rise in global economic lists, and we have taken some examples of a number of them in this study would not have been possible without the great effort made in planning them. Given how these countries have dealt with their crises, it is possible to deal with Sudan’s seemingly complex crises, as well as all similar cases in other countries.
A vision for a better future is the factor that makes a difference in all life projects from personal change to nation-building, as well as planning for economic transformation requires a vision of the future and a trend towards a specific goal, for example, towards industry or agriculture or both, as provided by data and calculations. Economic t
The road may be bumpy and sometimes harsh on the journey of transformation, but once its results begin to emerge, the country moves from poverty and despair to a tumultuous life of work and production.
Finally, as i have information and research, I think that this study is one of the rare studies that collected several models and compared them and extracted the benefits from the application of strategic planning and at the same time developed the effects of neglecting this process, also I believe that the recommendations made are a summary of the work Attempts at several experiences at the state level have gone through many complex stages and details, but I have presented them as one idea that must be worked on.
These recommendations are certainly not magic solutions, but processes that go through many stages that may be accompanied by failure and revision, but their aim is the process of comprehensive reform for the sake of change, so they must be followed, corrected and evaluated continuously until they reach their objectives.
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