Management appeared as a science with its principles, origins, and theories at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, starting with the classical theories then the behavioral ones, and finally modern management theories, which is what we aim for today.
Modern management thought has focused on the pros and cons of classical and behavioral schools, between the strict control style and the self-control of the worker, as well as on the applied control process after analyzing its basic steps to set standards, measure performance and reduce the gap between the results already achieved and the previously made plans.
Modern management thought mainly includes three basic approaches:-
– systems approach
– Contingency or Situational Approach
– Japanese Approach
systems approach deals with any enterprise as a whole, as it elaborates all relevant organizational variables simultaneously. the organization is considered as a single unit and integrated entity not a set of separate elements, but rather its parts are interconnected by interrelations under a continuous interactive system to perform functions or activities which achieve the final result as planned and realize the goals of the organization.
The systems approach is based on three basic principles:
1-systems are not isolated but are part of other organizational structures. as each system is influenced by the surrounding environment, which is characterized by constant change because systems cannot be analyzed in isolation, but the analysis includes the business environment as a whole
2-all systems are open and influenced by each other Where the various parts of the organization are interconnected together and the effectiveness of each part depends on the previous ones, which helps in the work efficiency of subsystems to ensure the continuity and growth of the organization.
3-the design of the organization structure affects the performance of the organization. as the decentralization of management decisions mainly affects the performance of the organization and its ability to achieve goals.
Contingency or Situational Approach
The contingency Approach considered the organization as an open system with boundaries separating it from its external environment. This approach seeks to understand the interactive relationships among the organization parts and between the organization and its external environment, then identifies the patterns of these relations and various variables to understand how organizations work and be managed under conditions of uncertainty. Different situations require different styles of leadership and management, and therefore their effectiveness depends on the appropriateness of the leadership style with the requirements of the situation, as each situation is influenced by many factors like The size of the organization, its internal and external environment, the strategies of the organization and the technologies used in it, the type of employees, the prevailing culture, and the nature of the work of the organization
management behavior depends mainly on a wide combination of elements that make up different situations, it cannot be generalized or inferred from other situations, therefore we can say that management is completely situational, and administrative policies and procedures should respond to changing environmental conditions and design different technologies and control systems to suit each situation.
The Japanese management relied on its concept of democracy and participation in the process of setting goals and decision-making to reach the expected results among the top, middle and lower management levels, as it aimed to achieve a kind of social adaptation within the organization By the prevailing values among its members, which are characterized by stability and collective effort.
the Japanese approach is based on two main aspects of its management style:
Japanese organizations work on a basis based on work units, not individuals or specific positions which contributes to raise production efficiency
Decisions are made collectively in the organizations, where all those affected participate in decision-making, and the leadership approach is implemented with a focus on applying continuous education and training policies to all the organization members, which leads to increase productivity and raises the efficiency of the products provided.
Hence, we can say that organizations should become more flexible in the way they deal with their employees, and more able to adapt to rapid changes in the working environment. This comes in conjunction with the development of organizational structures to be able to keep up with market requirements and consumer trends which helps to achieve effective performance and create competitive advantages that contribute to raising production efficiency and achieving the desired goals.